Efecto Antioxidante

Pressurized liquid extracts from Spirulina platensis microalga. Determination of their antioxidant activity and preliminary analysis by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

Herrero M, Ibanez E, Cifuentes A, Senorans J.

Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

In this work, different extracts from the microalga Spirulina platensis are obtained using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and four different solvents (hexane, light petroleum, ethanol and water). Different extraction temperatures (115 and 170 degrees C) were tested using extraction times ranging from 9 to 15 min. The antioxidant activity of the different extracts is determined by means of an in vitro assay using a free radical method. Moreover, a new and fast method is developed using micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode array detection (MEKC-DAD) to provide a preliminary analysis on the composition of the extracts. This combined application (i.e., in vitro assays plus MEKC-DAD) allowed the fast characterization of the extracts based on their antioxidant activity and the UV-vis spectra of the different compounds found in the extracts. To our knowledge, this work shows for the first time the great possibilities of the combined use of PLE-in vitro assay-MEKC-DAD to investigate natural sources of antioxidants.

PUB: J Chromatogr A. 2004 Aug 27;1047(2):195-203.

Antioxidant activity of different fractions of Spirulina platensis protean extract.

Pinero Estrada JE, Bermejo Bescos P, Villar del Fresno AM.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.

Spirulina platensis, planktonic blue-green algae, is gaining increasing attention because of its nutritional and medicinal properties. This microalgae contains phycobiliproteins (phycocyanin and allophycocyanin). Previous reports from our laboratory have shown that a protean extract of S. platensis is a potent free-radical scavenger (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) and inhibits microsomal lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize phycocyanin of S. platensis. Besides, we tried to demonstrate that one of the main components responsible for this antioxidant activity is a biliprotein phycocyanin. For this purpose, we studied the antioxidant activity of different fractions obtained during the phycocyanin purification process, through the scavenger activity of hydroxyl radical. We also observed that an increase in phycocyanin content was related to an increase in the antioxidant activity in different fractions, and therefore phycobiliprotein phycocyanin is the component mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity.

PUB: Farmaco. 2001 May-Jul;56(5-7):497-500.

C-phycocyanin: a potent peroxyl radical scavenger in vivo and in vitro.

Bhat VB, Madyastha KM.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

C-Phycocyanin (from Spirulina platensis) effectively inhibited CCl(4)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver in vivo. Both native and reduced phycocyanin significantly inhibited peroxyl radical-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and the inhibition was concentration dependent with an IC(50) of 11.35 and 12.7 microM, respectively. The radical scavenging property of phycocyanin was established by studying its reactivity with peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals and also by competition kinetics of crocin bleaching. These studies have demonstrated that phycocyanin is a potent peroxyl radical scavenger with an IC(50) of 5.0 microM and the rate constant ratios obtained for phycocyanin and uric acid (a known peroxyl radical scavenger) were 1.54 and 3.5, respectively. These studies clearly suggest that the covalently linked chromophore, phycocyanobilin, is involved in the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of phycocyanin. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

PUB: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Aug 18;275(1):20-5.

Selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 by C-phycocyanin, a biliprotein from Spirulina platensis.

Reddy CM, Bhat VB, Kiranmai G, Reddy MN, Reddanna P, Madyastha KM.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

We report data from two related assay systems (isolated enzyme assays and whole blood assays) that C-phycocyanin a biliprotein from Spirulina platensis is a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) with a very low IC(50) COX-2/IC(50) COX-1 ratio (0.04). The extent of inhibition depends on the period of preincubation of phycocyanin with COX-2, but without any effect on the period of preincubation with COX-1. The IC(50) value obtained for the inhibition of COX-2 by phycocyanin is much lower (180 nM) as compared to those of celecoxib (255 nM) and rofecoxib (401 nM), the well-known selective COX-2 inhibitors. In the human whole blood assay, phycocyanin very efficiently inhibited COX-2 with an IC(50) value of 80 nM. Reduced phycocyanin and phycocyanobilin, the chromophore of phycocyanin are poor inhibitors of COX-2 without COX-2 selectivity. This suggests that apoprotein in phycocyanin plays a key role in the selective inhibition of COX-2. The present study points out that the hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-arthritic properties of phycocyanin reported in the literature may be due, in part, to its selective COX-2 inhibitory property, although its ability to efficiently scavenge free radicals and effectively inhibit lipid peroxidation may also be involved. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

PUB: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Nov 2;277(3):599-603.